Iran is located in southwest Asia, largely on a plateau between the Caspian Sea to the north and the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman to the south. Its neighbors are: in the north Azerbaijan, Armenia and Turkmenistan; in the east Pakistan and Afghanistan; and in the west Turkey and Iraq. Approximately 30 percent of its boundary is made up of the sea coast. Iran is considered a mountainous country because approximately 90% of its territory is situated on a plateau and more than half of the country is covered by mountains. As a whole, looking at the geography of the world, you will soon discover that Iran is one of the most mountainous countries in the world.
There are two major mountain ranges in Iran. The Alborz Mountain Range which is located from Northwest to Northeast Iran, with the highest peak in Iran (Mount Damavand, 5671 meters above sea level) near Tehran. The Zagros Mountain Range which is located from northwest to southeast of Iran, with several peaks higher than 4000 meters above sea level. The deserts of Iran are situated mainly in the eastern half of Iran. With two notable deserts: the Dasht-e -Kavir (Desert of Kavīr) and the Dasht-e-Lut (Desert of Lūt). These two deserts dominate the eastern part of the country and are part of an arid landscape that extends into Central Asia and Pakistan.
Iran has a diverse climate. In the northwest, winters are cold, with heavy snowfall and sub-zero temperatures in December and January. Mid-season is mild and summer is very hot and dry. In the south, winters are mild and summers are very hot, with temperatures exceeding 38ºC. In Khuzstan, hot summer is accompanied by high humidity. In general, the climate is arid, with most (few) rainfall between October and April. It rains a little more in the Zagros valleys and the coastal plain of the Caspian Sea.
Iran occupies an important position in international energy security and the world economy as a result of its large reserves of oil and natural gas.